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Library Research E-Textbook - Student Version: Evaluation of Online Sources

Evaluation of Online Sources: Introduction & Goals


Not all information is good information, so make sure you're careful about what you cite! It's important to be critical of information, no matter where you get it. Be sure to ask questions of every information source you find: who wrote it? why? when? In this module you'll learn more about how to tell the difference between reliable and unreliable information. Also, the entire point of doing research is to construct critically analyzed thoughts, which can only be completed through your critical reflection of sources.


In this module, you'll learn to:

  • Apply the CRAAP criteria to evaluate a website, and how to apply the same concepts to other types of information sources
  • Use advanced web searching tools and tips in using Google and Google Scholar

Choose your sources wisely

Most students start their research online, so we'll begin our discussion of sources with websites.  Google is probably where you immediately fo when you want to find out information on a research topic (or anything really), right?  Google is a great place to start your research, but you may quickly find that there is an overwhelming amount of online information about your topic.  It is, therefore, very important to choose your research sources wisely -- especially when they're websites. It's essential that you review every website you want to use for your academic projects with a critical eye. Be a skeptic! Watch this video for the major considerations and things to look for when evaluating potential Web sources.

Direct link to video: 

Deciding Relevance

When deciding whether to keep a particular information source for use in your project, no matter whether it's a book, article, or website, you will use a decision-making process that revolves around relevance. 

Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.

According to librarians at Chico State University, evaluating information includes considering relevance and asking the following questions:

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?

We must also learn to apply the CRAAP test when evaluating websites for our research:

Currency:  The timeliness of the information.
Relevance:  The importance of the information for your needs.
Authority:  The source of the information.
Accuracy:  The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content.
Purpose:  The reason the information exists.

To learn more about this, review the tutorial from Chico State University (original created by the University of Wyoming) and check out their handout below.

Subject Guide